Bibliographies for Gay Studies


  • Scripture and Homosexuality--rated and annotated
  • Homosexuality and Conversion to Heterosexuality
  • Position Statements on Conversion Therapy by Professional Organizations
  • Temporary science bibliography-biology and psychology combined
  • Over 70 studies affirming the mental health of homosexuals, and the relational health of homosexual relationships
  • Biology and Homosexuality Not yet added
  • Psychology and Homosexuality Not yet added
  • Review of studies on GLB teen suicide rates
  • Articles Relating to Drug Abuse or Suicide by GLB Persons
  • Articles Relating to Violence Perpetrated By or Against GLB Persons

    Scripture and Homosexuality

    This is a comprehensive list of positive and negative discussions regarding homosexuality and the Christian Scriptures. As of April, 2003, there are 116 exegetical and theological articles (and a few books) listed here, mostly from scholastic journals.

    A note on my rating system:
    The bold code preceding each reference represents my rating system.
    A=Anti-gay, P=Pro-gay, N=Neutral
    4=Contributes unique and important information to the topic at hand
    3=Contributes good inforamation to the topic at hand
    2=Is not a bad work, but does not contribute new information
    1=Contributes no new information, is not relevant to the topic at hand, or represents poor scholarship.

    There are any number of good critical commentaries and critical commentary series that are available for reference of any particular passage, but are not listed in the bibliography below due to the general nature of their information. (see the Word Biblical Commentary, The Anchor Bible (Doubleday Publishing), etc.)

    Annotations are brief and in italics following the citation. No work that has a rating of "1" is annotated.


    (N3) Anderson, Bernhard. "The Biblical Circle of Homosexual Prohibition." Bible Review 9/3 (1993): 10, 52. Anderson affirms that the biological norm for reproduction is heterosexuality as described in Genesis. He questions whether that subsequently means that the ethical norm for human sexuality is heterosexuality.

    (P4) Artsun, Bradley. Judaism and Homosexuality. Tikkun 3 (1988): 52-54+. Discusses post-Biblical Judaic literature regarding homosexuality.

    (N4)Balch, David (ed). Homosexuality, Science, and the 'Plain Sense' of Scripture. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. Sometimes fairly technical, but represents good scholarship from both pro-gay and anti-gay writers. Few of the writers jump directly into answering the question of whether or not homosexuality is sinful. Most address the more basic questions of hermeneutics, ethics, theology, etc. A great books for those who already have a handle on the issue and some theological background.

    (P2) Bartlett, David. Biblical perspective on homosexuality. Foundations 20 (1977): 133-147. Argues that the OT passages do not apply to NT Christians. Further, while Paul appears to be condemning homosexuality, his discussions of Christan freedom intends to show that homosexuality was not the real issue.

    (A2) Bartow, Charles L. Speaking the Text and Preaching the Gospel. In Homosexuality and Christian Community, Westminster John Knox Press, 1996. Reviews Romans 1, linking it to Habakkuk 1.

    (P2) Beal, Charles. Modern medicine, homosexuality, and the Bible. Journal of American College Health 43 (1994): 91-93. Briefly discusses biological and social causation of homosexuality, and claims that Paul was not referring to mutual, loving homosexual relationships in Romans 1, and moreover, Christian freedom should prevent church heterosexism.

    (P2) Bellis, Alice. When God makes a way. Other Side 31 (1995): 8-11. Discusses three hermeneutical principles by which Scripture should be interpreted.

    (N3) Bird, Phyllis. Bone of My Bone and Flesh of My Flesh. Theology Today 50 (1994): 521-534. Tries to set the Genesis accounts of creation and the theology of a "creation order" in the context of Biblical theology from a feminist perspective. Discusses the fact that female subordination to the male, male toil in work, etc, is all a result of the fall and not part of the "created order". She takes exception to the concept of a genderless God.

    (P3)Blount, Brian K. Reading and Understanding the New Testament on Homosexuality. In Homosexuality and Christian Community, Westminster John Knox Press: Louisville, 1996. Shows that the writers of Paul's time condemned homosexuality, but they associated it with idolatry and a rejection of God, not an innate characteristic.

    (P4) Blumenfeld, Warren. Looking at Gay and Lesbian Life. Philosophical Library: New York, 1988.

    (P2) Borg, Marcus. Homosexuality and the New Testament. Bible Review 10 (1994): 20-54. Argues that the prohibitions against homosexuality are rooted in OT legal codes no longer followed by NT Christians.

    (P2) Boswell, John. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1980. Argues that the early church was not homophobic, but that homosexual persecution only developed in the Middle Ages. In his appendices he discusses the classical anti-gay texts, claiming that arsenkoitai should be translated as male prostitute. Most of his lexicography has been seriously challenged by NT scholars. While his ground-breaking efforts were important for the gay movement, I don't consider his exegesis convincing.

    (P2) Boswell, John. Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. Vintage Books: New York, 1994. Claims that there have been segments of the Church catholic that has accepted same-sex unions, and have created liturgies celebrating their unions. While he makes an excellent case for same-sex "unions," occurring throughout church history, he does not provide a compelling case that these unions were necessarily "sexual" unions.

    (P2) Bridger, Francis. Entropy, Sexuality and Politics: A reply to Michael Williams. Anvil 10 (1993): 111-123. Argues against the Williams' conclusions (see Williams, 1993), on the basis that he misunderstands the word phusis. Francis attempts to support his case by discussing the purpose of sexuality and humans as imago dei.

    (N4)Brooten, Bernadette. Patristic Interpretations of Romans 1:26. Studia Patristica 18: 287-291. Ed. Elizabeth Livingstone, Cistercian Publishing: Kalamazoo, 1985. Reviews possible interpretations of Romans 1:26, rejecting the interpretation of heterosexual, non-vaginal sex.

    (A4) Brooten, Bernadette. Paul's Views on the Nature of Women and Female Homoeroticism. In Homosexuality and Religion and Philosophy by W Dynes, Garland Publishing: NY, 1992. Shows that Paul condemned female same-sex sexual relationships, which was also the view held by the Greeks and Romans of his time.

    (N4) Brooten, Bernadette. Love Between Women. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1996. Reviews all extant Greek, Roman and early church discussions of lesbianism. Includes a detailed commentary on Romans 1, supporting the traditional interpretation that Paul was condemning homosexuality.

    (N3)Daube, David. "The Old Testament Prohibitions of Homosexuality." Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung fur Rechtsgeschichte Romantische Abteilung 103 (1986):447-448. Daube believes that the Leviticus prohibitions are a specific reference to anal intercourse based on the Hebrew grammar and vocabulary, making the connection between a similar formula in both Jewish and Assyrian law.

    (P3) Davies, Margaret. "New Testament ethics and our: homosexuality and sexuality in Romans." Biblical Interpretation 3 (1995): 315-31. Discusses the issue of natural/unnatural in Greek literature, claiming that their limited understanding of science makes Paul's prohibition based on nature irrelevant to modern ethics.

    (A2) Dearman, Andrew J. Marriage in the Old Testament. In Biblical Ethics and Homosexuality, Westminster John Knox Press, 1996. Examines various OT passages on marriage, arguing that the male/female marriage model was intended to be normative.

    (A4) DeYoung, James. The contributions of the Septuagint to Biblical sanctions against homosexuality. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34 (1991): 157-77. Section I shows that the Hebrew word 'yada' means "to have sex with" not "to become aquainted with" and section II gives evidence of ritual homosexuality in OT and NT times in pagan cultures. Regardless of the excellent scholarship of this article, however, it fails to interact with the argument that the issue of Sodom was of "gang-rape" regardless of whether it was homosexual or heterosexual.

    (A4) DeYoung, James. A critique of prohomosexual interpretationsof the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigripha." Bibliotheca Sacra 147 (1990): 437-54. Shows that the sin of Sodom had sexual implications, and was not simply sins of pride and inhospitality. See the criticism of DeYoung, 1991.

    (A4) DeYoung, James. The meaning of nature in Romans 1 and its implications for Biblical proscriptions of homosexual behavior. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 31 (1988): 429-41. Argues against Boswell's and Scroggs' view that Paul is referring to heterosexuals who are engaging in homosexual behavior in Romans 1. An excellent study of the Greek word physis.

    (A2) DeYoung, James. The source and NT meanings of arsenokoitai, with implications for Christian ethics and ministry. Master's Seminary Journal 3 (1992): 191-215.
    http://www.tms.edu/tmsj/tmsj3h.pdf
    Reviews each of the classic pro-gay theorists (Scroggs, Boswell, Bailey) and exposes weaknesses in their arguments regarding arsenokoitai, then gives evidence that Paul coined arsenokoitai from the Septuagint.

    (N4) Dover, Kenneth. Greek Homosexuality. Harvard University Press: 1989. A landmark overview of Greek expressions of and views on male homosexuality. Includes about 30 pages of photographs of vases and other ancient art.

    (N3) Dozeman, Thomas. Creation and procreation in the Biblical teaching on homosexuality. Union Seminary Quarterly Review 49 (1995): 169-91. Discussion of the lack of good hermeneutics as sexual ethics are derived from Scripture. Examines the classic anti-gay texts in light of Genesis 1, calling for a hermeneutic not rooted in procreationism.

    (A2) Dresner, Samuel. Homosexuality and the order of creation. Judaism 40 (1991): 309-321. Discusses God's intent for sexuality as found in Genesis.

    (P1) Edwards, George. A critique of creationst homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality 18 (1989-1990): 95-118.

    (N4) Eliade, Mircea. Homosexuality. The Encyclopedia of Religion volume 6. Macmillan Publishing: New York. Gives an over-view of cross-cultural, through history, and cross-religious homosexuality, and evidence for homosexuality and ritual prostitution in Canaan.

    (P2) Ellingsen, Mark. Luther on human sexuality. Dialog 32 (1993): 69-74. Discusses Luther's open view to premarital sex, but anti-gay sentiments due to it's unnaturalness.

    (N4) Eron, Lewis John. Homosexuality and Judaism. In, Homosexuality and World Religions by Arlene Swidler. Trinity Press: Valley Forge, 1993. Gives an historical, biblical and post-Biblical perspective on Jewish views on homosexuality.

    (A2)Feldman, David M. Homosexuality and Jewish Law. Judaism 32 (1983): 426-429. Mentions some Talmudic and scientific issues in the Judaic condemnation of homosexuality. He describes that if homosexuality is an illness then it deserves no religious condemnation and that the Levitical prohibition on homosexuality has nothing to do with the command to "be fruitful."

    (N3) Forde, Gerhard. The normative character of Scripture for matters of faith and life. Word and World 14 (1994): 305-314. Discusses Romans 1 in the context that "I" am to be exegeted by the text.

    (A2) Gagnon, Robert. The Bible and Homosexual Practice: Texts and Hermeneutics. Abingdon Press 2001. This is an excellent review of most of the contemporary pro-gay arguments with the counter-critiques from the anti-gay side. However, Gagnon shows himself to have inherent biases against the gay position that prevent him from examining these arguments objectively. He consistenly uses the circular logic of "homosexuality is obviously a sin, therefore these passages are condemning homosexuality" when examining many text that most scholars long ago accepted are not a broad condemnation of homosexuality. Moreover, the last chapter of his book on "hermeneutics", is actually a series of references to Paul Cameron's work (et al) that supposedly show why science condemns homosexuality. However, Cameron's work has been long discredited by the scientific community. I briefly review the book on the Bridges Across the Divide Message Board

    (P3) Gaiser, Frederick. A new word on homosexuality? Isaiah 56:1-8 as case study. Word and World 14 (1994): 280-293. Likens modern Christian homosexuals to the eunuchs referred to in Isa 56:1-8, claiming that just as these eunuchs who were, at the time, believed to be sexual deviants/outcasts were commanded to be welcomed into the body, so should homosexuals be welcomed in.

    (N2) Gaiser, Frederick. Homosexuality and the Old Testament. Word and World 10 (1990): 161-165. Discusses various possibilities for the OT anti-gay texts.

    (P3) Greenberg, David. The Construction of Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press: London, 1988. Some history and cross-cultural views on homosexuality, arguing that homosexuality is a social construct. Does not interact extensively with Biblical arguments.

    (A2)Haas, Guenther. Exegetical issues in the use of the Bible to justify the acceptance of homosexual practice. Christian Scholar's Review 26 (1997): 386-412. Interacts critically with each of the classic pro-gay writers (Boswell, Scroggs, McNeill and Scanzoni), but fails to account for current scholarship in the field. Further, he fails to address the issue of "gang-rape" in Sodom and how that passage can be applied to "all" homosexual behavior, as well as failing to address the hermeneutical issues involved in accepting some Levitical commands, while rejecting others. http://www.trinitysem.edu/journal/haas_hermen.html

    (N1) Hart, Hendrik. Reply to Wolters. Calvin Theological Journal 28 (1993): 170-74. A rejoinder to Wolter's criticism of Hart's proposition on Romans 1

    (P2) Hart, Hendrik. Romans Revisited. Other Side 28 (1992): 57-62. Discussion of Hart's journey to reject the anti-gay interpretation of Romans 1.

    (A2) Hays, Richard. Awaiting the redemption of our bodies. Sojourners 20 (1991): 17-21. Review of the anti-gay texts, also discussing God's intent for human sexuality and Christian tradition.

    (A4) Hays, Richard. "Relations natural and unnatural: a response to John Boswell's exegesis of Romans 1." Journal of Religious Ethics 14 (1986): 184-215. Points out the errors in Boswell's exegesis of Romans 1, discussing natural/unnatural, showing that Paul's condemnation applies to modern ethics.

    (P4)Helminiak, Daniel. Response: Ethics, Biblical and denominational: A response to Mark Smith. JAAR 65 (1997): 855-860. Argues that Smith did not adequately address Boswell's exegesis of Romans 1.

    (N3) Holter, Knut. A note on the Old Testament background of Romans 1:23-27. Biblische Notizen 69 (1993): 21-23. Surveys the parallels between the OT background of idolatry/sexuality and the Romans condemnation.

    (N2) Hulme, William. A pastoral perspective on homosexuality. Word and World 10 (1990): 131-139. A brief survey of the cultural history of homosexuality, views on causation, and the pastoral response of compassion.

    (P3) Hultgren, Arland. Being faithful to the Scriptures: Romans 1:26-27. Word and World 14 (1994): 315-25. Argues that Paul was only aware of subjugative/ritual homosexuality, not innate, natural homosexuality. Hultgren's argument, however, fails to take into account more recent scholarship on this issue (see Smith).

    (A2) Hurtado, Larry. The Bible and same-sex erotic relations. Crux 32 (1996): 13-19. Review of the anti-gay texts, failing to take into account more recent pro-gay scholarship.

    (N2) Johanson, Warren. Whosoever Shall Say to His Brother, Racha. The Cabirion and Gay Books Bulletin 10 (1984): 2-4.Provides nominal evidence that the Aramaic word "racha" meant the same as the anti-gay view of the Greek word "malakos".

    (N3) Johnson, LT. Debate and Discernment, Scripture and the Spirit. Commonweal 121 (1994): 11-14.While the author seems to have a pro-gay slant in his Biblical interpretation of the classical anti-gay passages, he ends by steering the questions in another direction, not giving an answer to them: "Are homosexuality and holiness of life compatible? Is homosexual covenantal love according to 'the mind of Christ,' an authentic realization of that Christian identity authored by the Holy Spirit and therefore 'authored' as well by the Scripture despite the 'authorities' which speak against it?"

    (A2) Jones, Stanton and Mark Yarhouse. Homosexuality: The Use of Scientific Research in the Churchís Moral Debate. InterVarsity Press, 2000. These authors are too well respected in their field to publish the unsubstantiated rhetoric they have written in this book. The book is more balanced than most books of its kind by Evangelicals, but it still links homosexuality to AIDS, pedophilia, gerbilling, etc. I have written a review of the book that will be published in the Winter 2002 edition of Sexuality and Culture and is up on the Bridges Across the Divide site.

    (P2) Kirschner, Robert. Halakhah and Homosexuality. Judaism 37 (1988): 450-458. Discussion of post-Biblical Judaic literature and its relation to homosexuality.

    (P2) Lance, H Darrell. "The Bible and homosexuality." American Baptist Quarterly 8 (1989): 140-151. Discusses each anti-gay text, supporting Boswell's lexicography of the NT, and showing difficulties of the generalizing and ethic from the Sodom story to modern ethics.

    (P3) Linscheid, John. Our story in God's story: Reading the Bible with gay eyes. The Other Side 23 (1987): 32-35+. (ISSN: 0145-7675). This is not an exegetical article, but a combination of narrative of Linscheid's journey with his homosexuality and Scripture, taking the approach of Foucaultian power structure.

    (P4) Linscheid, John. Creating companionship: the God of Genesis calls us all... . Other Side 31 (1995): 8-15. This is not a scholarly article, but a wonderful narrative/reflection on Linscheid's journey with the homosexual issue. Discusses lonliness versus communion, and God's love.

    (P3) Lunn, Pam. Anatomy and theology of marriage: is gay marriage an oxymoron? Theology and sexuality 7 (1997): 10-26. This article is not exegetical, but examines "boundary situations" which show the inadequacy of traditional views of gender and marriage, and proposes a Quaker solution to the problem.

    (A3) Malick, David. The condemnation of homosexuality in 1 Corinthians 6:9. Bibiotheca Sacra 150 (1993): 479-92. Disputes Scroggs' interpretation of of arsenokoites as pederasty.

    (A1) Malick, David. The condemnation of homosexuality in Romans 1:26-27. Bibiotheca Sacra 150 (1993): 327-40.

    (P3) Mader, Donald. The entimos pais of Matthew 8:5-13 and Luke 7:1-10. In Homomsexualit and Religion and Philosophy by W Dynes, Garland Publishing: NY, 1992. Gives evidence that Jesus came into contact with a pederastic relationship and did not condemn it. Provocative, but not quite compelling.

    (P2) Martin, A Damien. The Perennial Canaanites: The Sin of Homosexuality. Et cetara 41 (1984): 340-361. Surveys classical pro-gay theology as of 1984. Is not useful in light of the critiques of pre-1984 theology and the more current scholarship on pro-gay issues.

    (P4) Martin, Dale. Arsenokoites and malakos: Meanings and Consequences. Biblical Ethics and Homosexuality, Robert Brawley. Westminster Press: Louisville, 1996. Provides evidence that there is little evidence to translate arsenokoites as any "active" homosexual activity, and that neither should malakoi be translated passive homosexual, citing MANY early Greek sources.

    (N3) Martin, Dale. Heterosexism and the interpretation of Romans 1:18-32. Biblical Interpretation 3 (1995): 332-55. Argues that heterosexism guides most interpretations of Romans 1, leading us immediately to condemn homosexuality, ignoring the emphasis on idolatry. Discusses nature and desire in the Greek context.

    (P4) Matzko, David. Homosexuality and the practices of marriage. Modern Theology 13 (1997): 371-397. Discusses Catholic tradition, Humanae Vitae, Scripture, the Ramsey Colloquium and social mores in relation to homosexual marriage.

    (A3) Mauser, Ulrich W. Creation and human sexuality in the New Testament. In Biblical Ethics and Homosexuality, Westminster John Knox Press, 1996. Examines NT texts and Gen 1-2, arguing that Paul's statement in Romans 1 is derived from the creation story.

    (P4) McIntyre, Michael. Gay texts of terror? Christian Scholar's Review 26 (1996): 412-434. One of the best integrative pieces I've read. Critically reviews the work of Boswell and Scroggs (unfortunately however, seems to accept Scroggs' discussion of arsenokoitai and malakoi). Mentions the work of Mary Douglas in relation to holiness, discussing a broader hermeneutical perspective of homosexuality in the life of the contemporary church as they relate to shame, honor and purity.

    (N3) Mickey, Paul. Of Sacred Worth. Abingdon Press: Nashville, 1991. Reviews the anti-gay passages from both traditionalist and revisionist perspective, and discusses sexuality in relationship to intimacy.

    (P2) Milgrom, Jacob. Does the Bible prohibit homosexuality? Bible Review 9 (1993): 11. A Jewish perspective on Leviticus 18, arguing that the prohibition against homosexuality is to prevent the the spilling of seed due to an erroneous view of seminal fluids, not to homosexuality itself.

    (N2) Miller, James. Response: Pederasty and Romans 1:27: A response to Mark Smith. JAAR 65 (1997): 861-866. Miller argues that Greeks/Romans of NT times did not accept same-age homosexuality, discussing the commonality of pederasty in Paul's era.

    (N4) Miller, James. The practices of Romans 1:26: Homosexual or heterosexual. Novum Testamentum 37 (1995): 1-11. Uses comparisons to Greek literature to show that Romans 1:26 refers to heterosexual non-vaginal intercourse, not lesbianism. Fails to interact with Brooten, or discuss the clear reference to male-male same-sex behavior in Rom 1:27.

    (N3) Miller, Robert. Catalogues and Context: 1 Corinthians 5 and 6. New Testament Studies 34 (1988): 622-629. Discusses Paul's purpose of the vice-list in the context of 1 Co 5 and 6, concluding that Paul bounds 1 Co 6 with the word pornos and that his intent is to emphasize the connection between idolatry and sexual immorality.

    (A3) Mills, Jonathon. John Boswell's corruption of the Greeks. Crux 18 (1982): 21-27. ISSN: 0011-2186 Argues that Boswell misrepresents the Greek literature when he says they didn't disapprove of homosexuality.

    (A1) Multiple authors. Homosexuality and the Bible. Fundamentalist Journal 4 (1985): 17-27.

    (P2) Multiple authors. Homosexuality: A re-examination. Engage/Social Action 8 (1980): 9-56. Many short articles, primarily on the pastoral care of homosexuals.

    (P4) Myers, Charles. What the Bible really says about homosexuality. Anima 19 (1992): 47-56. A good review of all of the anti-gay texts, including a discussion on the historical difficulty translating arsenokoitai. Claims that while Romans probably condemns homosexuality, it should be reinterpreted in terms of modern culture, similar to the commands about women have been reinterpreted.

    (A1) Oliff, Derrick. A Reformed Response to Daniel Helminiak's Gay Theology. http://www.reformed.org/social/hodges_response_helminiak.html

    (P2) Olson, Mark. Untangling the Web. The Other Side 20 (1984): 24-29. Surveys classical pro-gay theology as of 1984. Is not useful in light of the critiques of pre-1984 theology and the more current scholarship on pro-gay issues.

    N4 Olyan, Saul. And with a man you shall not lie the lying down of a woman: on the meaning and significance of Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13. Journal of the History of Sexuality 5(2): 179-206. Exegetes Leviticus 18/20 from a redaction perspective, and compares them with Middle Assyrian Laws. He concludes that the Hebrew vocabulary specifically prohibits male-anal intercourse, due to the inappropriate mixing of fluids, but would not prohibit any other type of homosexual behavior.

    (A3) Pannenberg, Wolfhart. You shall not lie with a male. Lutheran Forum 30 (1996): 28-29. Discusses God's intention for human sexuality.

    (N2) Parker, Simon B. The Hebrew Bible and homosexuality. Quarterly Review 11 (1991): 4-19. Discusses the language and background of the Sodom and Leviticus texts, as well as David and Jonathon.

    (P3) Paterson, TJM. An introduction to the ethics of homosexuality. Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 48 (1984): 45-54. Discusses the issue of innate homosexuality in terms of Scriptural intent, supporting his arguments with Matthew 19:10ff, 1 Co 7:9 and Mark 12:24-27.

    (P2) Petersen, William. Can arsenokoitai be translated by homosexuals? Vigiliae Christianae 40 (1986): 187-91. Argues that Wright (1984) is correct in rejecting Boswell's translation of arsenokoitai, but that Wright still doesn't prove his point that Paul was condemning all homosexual relationships

    (P3) Petersen, William. On the study of homosexuality in Patristic sources. Studia Patristica 20 (1989): 283-88. Cites several Greek sources contradicting the Evangelical translation of arsenokoitai.

    (P2) Punt, Jeremy. Sin as Sex or Sex as Sin? Rom 1:18-32 as First Century CE Theological Argument. Neotestimentica 42 (2008): 73-92. Punt creates an interesting argument regarding the nature of sexual discourse within the early church--that sexual discourse was a metaphor for sinfulness itself.

    (A4) Reynolds, Philip. Same-sex unions: What Boswell didnít find. Christian Century 112 (1995): 49-54. Discusses gaps in Boswell's research that call into question his assertion that the Medieval unions he describes are sexual in nature.

    (P2) Ridd, Carl. Homosexuality and the Bible. Touchstone 6 (1988): 44-48. (ISSN: 0827-3200) Discusses the Leviticus passages in terms of the ancient, mistaken view of seminal fluid.

    (A2) Sanders, EP. Paul. Oxford University Free Press: New York, 1991. The chapter titled "Behaviour" discusses Paul's concerns for Christian behavior, including sexual chastity, and Paul's predilection for asceticism.

    (A4) Satlow, Michael. They abused him like a woman: homoeroticism, gender blurring, and the rabbis in late antiquity. Journal of the History of Sexuality 5(1): 1-25. Discusses the rabbinical views of both male and female homoeroticism, as well as hermaphrodites, based on ancient rabbinic texts.

    (A2) Schmidt, Thomas. Act and orientation in Romans 1:26-27. Journal of Psychology and Christianity 15 (1996):293-300. See a similar article in Same Sex, edited by John Corvino, Rowman and Littlefield Publ: NY, 1997. A review of the God's intent for sexuality based on Genesis 1-2 and criticisms of revisionist interpretations. Claims that heterosexuality is set up as normative for all cultures, and Paul bases his anti-gay Romans 1 statements on Genesis 1-2.

    (A2) Schmidt, Thomas. Straight & Narrow? Compassion and Clarity in the Homosexuality Debate. InterVarsity Press: Downers Grove, 1995. In his first chapter, Schmidt claims that he is going to great lengths to convince the reader that he is going to be fair and honest about the issues involved with homosexuality and Christianity. It's easy to be lured into believing this, until one starts reading his "scientific" data on the mental and physical health of gays, and the sexual behavior of gays. The data he chooses to use is incredibly biased and out-dated. He picks a few poorly-designed, old studies to support his case that gays are unhealthy and sexually promiscuous, totally ignoring the vast majority of studies, as well as psychiatric and medical opinion supporting the fact that gays are no more promiscuous, mentally unhealthy, or at risk for disease than are straight people. Similarly with his Scriptural analysis, he ignores the more recent scholarship, not only beating the dead-horse weaknesses of Boswell, Scroggs and Countrymen into an unrecognizable pulp, but creating straw-men arguments that this reviewer has NEVER seen in all of his readings on this issue.

    (P3) Scroggs, Robin. The New Testament and Homosexuality. Fortress Press: Philadelphia, 1983. Scroggs' book is a classic in pro-gay studies, and has greatly contributed to scholarship in the field. However his view that Paul knew only of pederastic relationships has been disputed by numerous scholars (see Smith), which formed a large part of his argument from the New Testament texts.

    (P4) Sheppard, Gerald. The use of Scripture within the Christian ethical debate concerning same-sex oriented persons. Union Seminary Quarterly Review 40 (1985): 13-35. Argues that, because of other historical changes in our following of Scripture (particularly slavery), we should be open to homosexual unions if they fall under broader guidelines in Scripture, like love and mutuality.

    (P2) Smith, Abraham. The New Testament and homosexuality. Quarterly Review 11 (1991): 18-32. Describes Greek homosexuality, and supports Scrogg's view that none of the NT passages refer to mutual, loving homosexual relationships, therefore cannot be applied to contemporary ethics.

    (A4) Smith, Mark. Ancient Bisexuality and the interpretation of Romans 1:26-27. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 64 (1996): 223-256). Disputes Scroggs' contention that Paul knew only about pederasty. Reviews MUCH Greek literature showing the prevalence of same-age gay and lesbian sexual relationships. Claims pederasty had severely declined by the 1st century BCE.

    (A3) Smith, Mark. Paul and ancient bisexuality: a rejoinder. JAAR 65 (1997) : 867-70. Smith defends his original article against Helminiak and Miller's responses.

    (P2) Stegmann, Wolfgang. Paul and the Sexual Mentality of His World. Biblical Theology Bulletin 23 (1993): 161-166. Tries to place Paul's condemnation of homosexuality in the context of the social proscription of male-female distinctiveness and the strict subordination women must have in the Greco-Roman cultures.

    (P2) Stone, Ken. "The Hermeneutics of abomination: on gay men, Canaanites, and Biblical interpretation." Biblical Theology Bulletin 27 (1997): 36-41. Disputes the existence of temple prostitution in Canaan, then discusses the problems with homophobic hermeneutics. His argument fails to account for disputing perspectives from more recent scholarship (see Wold, Wenham and DeYoung).

    (N3)Stone, Ken. "Gender and Homosexuality in Judges 19: Subject-Honor, Object-Shame?" Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 67 (1995): 87-107. Stone shows that the Judges 19 rape story should be read in light of the honor-shame dichotomy of the ancient Mediterranean male.

    (A2) Strauss, Gary. An Evangelical looks at homosexuality: from the Wesleyan quadrilateral to a postmodern tetralectic. Christian Scholar's Review 26 (1996): 514-39. Strauss argues against homosexuality, partly based on the anatomy of sexuality, but in doing so he shows an ignorance of sexuality in general, and gay sex specifically. He quotes several historical Judeo-Christian sources which he claims condemns homosexuality.

    (P2) Szesnat, Holger. In fear of androgyny. Journal of Theology of Southern Africa 93 (1995): 32-50. Discusses gender issues, Romans 1, Brooten and physis, concluding that Paul's point was to emphasize a differentiation of gender roles, not specifically to condemn homosexuality.

    (A2) Taylor, J Glen. The Bible and homosexuality. Themelios 21 (1995): 4-9. Brief review of the anti-gay texts, failing to interact with recent pro-gay scholarship.

    (N2) Tiede, David. Will idolaters, sodomizers, or the greedy inherit the kingdom of God? Word and World 10 (1990): 147-155. A questioning examination of 1 Co 6, giving several exegetical and theological possibilities.

    (P2) Towne, Edgar. Homosexual persons, the Bible, and the Church. Encounter 56 (1995): 27-47. Supports Scrogg's arguments about homosexuality in Scripture. Towne fails to take into account the evidence against Scrogg's position.

    (A2) Turner, PDM. Biblical texts relevant to homosexual orientation and practice. Christian Scholar's Review 26 (1997): 386-412. Briefly reviews each of the classic anti-gay texts, failing to account for recent scholarship by pro-gay authors.

    (A1) Ukleja, PM. Homosexuality and the New Testament. Bibliotheca Sacra 140 (1983): 350-58.

    (A3) Ukleja, PM. Homosexuality and the Old Testament. Bibliotheca Sacra 140 (1983): 259-266. Review of the Sodom and Leviticus passages, failing to interact with the issue of "gang-rape" to general applicability, and the hermeneutical issue of accepting some Leviticus passages and rejecting others.

    (P4) Verhey, Allen. The Holy Bible and sanctified sexuality. Interpretation 49 (1995): 31-45. Discusses marriage as it is presented in Scripture, and argues that being faithful to Scripture means not imposing our cultural homophobia into Scripture.

    (P2) Vorster, Johannes. The Making of Male Same-Sex in the Graeco-Roman World and its Implications for the Interpretation of Biblical Discourses. Scriptura 93 (2006): 432-454.Vorster discusses a constructivist position on the nature of sexual identity and the relationship between contemporary and ancient discourses on this issue.

    (N4) Walsh, Jerome. Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13: Who Is Doing What To Whom?, Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 120(2001): 201Ė209 A review and modification of Olyan's work, thus accepts that the Leviticus passages prohibit male-male anal intercourse, but subjects them to the shame/honor discussion of Douglas.

    (N3) Ward, Roy. Why unnatural? The tradition behind Romans 1:26-27. Harvard Theological Review 90 (1997): 263-284. In depth review of Greek literature to give a better understanding of natural/unnatural.

    (P2) Weber, Joseph. Does the Bible condemn homosexual acts? Engage/Social Action 3 (1975): 28-31. A brief overview of the common pro-gay arguments regarding the anti-gay Scriptural texts.

    (A3) Wenham, Gordon. The Old Testament attitude to homosexuality. Expository Times 102 (1991): 359-363. A review of extra-Biblical OT-times sources showing that the OT rejection of homosexuality was unique to the Israelites--homosexuality is accepted and practiced by other OT-era cultures.

    (N3) Whitaker, Richard E. Creation and human sexuality. In Homosexuality and Christian Community, Westminster John Knox Press: Louisville, 1996. Discusses Gen 1-3, questioning if the male/female creation story is normative for all sexuality.

    (P2) White, Leland. Does the Bible speak about gays or same-sex orientation? Biblical Theology Bulletin 25 (1995): 14-23. Argues that the OT passages have a mistaken view of sexual-orientation, and that the emphasis was on fulfilling reproductive roles, not on homosexuality itself.

    (P3)White, Leland. "Biblical Texts and Contemporary Gay People: A Response to Boswell and Boughton". Irish Theological Quarterly 59 (1993): 296-301. White discusses Douglas' shame/honor/holiness distinctions of the ancient Mediterranean male in light of the apparent Old Testament condemnations of homosexuality.

    (P3) Williams, Michael. Romans 1: entropy, sexuality and politics. Anvil 10 (1993): 105-110. Discusses the issue of sexuality in terms of idolatry. Any sexuality that elevates desire over relationship, Williams claims, is idolatry. Williams makes the provocative statement that in this sense, rape can occur between two consenting partners anytime sexual desire precludes relationship.

    (A4)Wold, Donald J. Out of Order. Baker Books: Grand Rapids, 1998. The first part of the book gives MUCH evidence for the existence of homosexuality in the cultures surrounding the ancient Israelites, but believes they all condemned homosexual behavior outside of the cultus. The second part, which reviews the primary OT/NT anti-gay texts is disturbingly lacking in scholarship. For example, Wold fails to deal with any of the recent literature on arsenokoitai and malakoi in his exegesis of 1 Co and 1 Tim.

    (A4) Wolters, Albert. Hartís exegetical proposal on Romans 1. Calvin Theological Journal 28 (1993): 166-70. Shows the serious flaws in a proposal by Hart (1992) regarding Romans 1.

    (A4) Wright, David. Homosexuals or prostitutes? Vigiliae Christianae 38 (1984): 125-153. A crucial work showing the inadequacy of Boswell's interpretation of arsenokoitai as male prostitute. Reviews MUCH Greek literature.

    (A2) Wright, David. Translating arsenokoitai. Vigiliae Christianae 41 (1987): 396-98. A rejoinder to Peterson's (1986) criticisms of a previous article by Wright.

    (A2) Wright, David. Homosexuality: the relevancy of the Bible. The Evangelical Quarterly 61 (1989): 291-300. A review of the anti-gay texts.

    (A2) Wright, DF. Early Christian Attitudes to Homosexuality. Studia Patristics 18 (1989): 329-334.Very brief review of the arguments he presented in his earlier papers, primarily attacking Boswell's lexicography.


    The following citations discuss the lack of evidence for change in sexual orientation

    (see also
    Niclas Berggren's page at http://hem.passagen.se/nicb/change.htm)

    Cabaj, R (1996). Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, pg. 525-537 (T Stein).
    Conrad, S (1976). "Orgasmic reconditioning: a controlled study of its effects upon the sexual arousal and behavior of male homosexuals." Behavior Therapy 7: 155-166.
    Curran, D (1957). "Homosexuality: an analysis of 100 male cases seen in private practice." British Medical Journal 1: 797-801.
    Eyesenck, HJ. Behavior Therapy and the Neuroses. Pergamon Press: New York, 1960. See primarily K Freund, Some problems in the treatment of homosexuality.
    Gonsiorek, J (1981). "Review of Homosexuality in Perspective." Journal of Homosexuality 6(3): 81-88.
    Gonsiorek, J (1991). Homosexuality: Research Implications for Public Policy. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, see ch. 7 and 10.
    Green, R (1987). The Sissy-Boy Syndrome and the Development of Homosexuality. New Haven: Yale University.
    Haldeman, D (1994). "The practice and ethics of sexual orientation conversion therapy." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62(2): 221-227.
    Hetrick, E (1984). Innovations in Psychotherapy with Homosexuals Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, (Martin: The emperor's new clothes: modern attempts to change sexual orientation; p. 23-57).
    McConaghy, N (1976). "Is a homosexual orientation irreversible?" British Journal of Psychiatry 129:556-563.
    Murphy, T (1991). "The ethics of conversion therapy." Bioethics 5: 123-138.
    Murphy, T (1992). "Redirecting sexual orientation." Journal of Sex Research 29(4): 501-23.
    Murphy, T (1997). Gay Science. New York: Columbia University Press (ch 3).
    Tripp, C (1975). The Homosexual Matrix. York: McGraw Hill.
    Wolfenden Report (1963). Report of the Committee on Homosexuality and Prostitution. New York:Stein and Day.
    Woodward (1958-59). "The diagnosis and treatment of homosexual offenders." British Journal of Delinquency 9: 44-59.

    The following citations I have been unable to personally verify:

    Bernstein, G (1996). "Behavior therapy with lesbians and gay individuals." Progress in Behavior Therapy 30:123-136.
    Coleman, E (1978). "Toward a new model of treatment of homosexuality." Journal of Homosexuality 3(4):345-359.
    Lawson, R (1987). "Scandal in the Adventist-funded program to heal homosexuals: Failure, sexual exploitation, official silence, and attempts to rehabilitate the exploiter and his methods." Paper given at the American Sociological Association, Chicago.
    Newswatch Briefs (1990, Feb 22). Gay Chicago Magazine 8: 43.
    Stein, T (1986). Contemporary Perspectives on Psychotherapy with Lesbians and Gay Men. New York: Plenum Press, p. 139-155 (R Isay).

    Position Statements Published by National Professional Organizations

    American Psychiatric Association

    May, 2000: Official Statement by the APA on reparative therapy and reparative therapists
    http://www.psych.org/pract_of_psych/copptherapyaddendum83100.cfm

    "The potential risks of "reparative therapy" are great, including depression, anxiety and self-destructive behavior, since therapist alignment with societal prejudices against homosexuality may reinforce self-hatred already experienced by the patient. Many patients who have undergone "reparative therapy" relate that they were inaccurately told that homosexuals are lonely, unhappy individuals who never achieve acceptance or satisfaction. The possibility that the person might achieve happiness and satisfying interpersonal relationships as a gay man or lesbian is not presented, nor are alternative approaches to dealing with the effects of societal stigmatization discussed. Therefore, the American Psychiatric Association opposes any psychiatric treatment, such as "reparative" or "conversion" therapy which is based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder or based upon a prior assumption that the patient should change his/her homosexual orientation."

    1989: Earlier Statement by the APA on Reparative Therapy
    http://www.psych.org/public_info/HOMOSE~1.HTM

    "Reparative therapy," also known as conversion therapy, is a term that is used to describe treatment attempts to change a person from a homosexual orientation to a heterosexual orientation. There is no published scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of "reparative therapy" as a treatment to change ones sexual orientation. It is not described in the scientific literature, nor is it mentioned in the APA's latest comprehensive Task Force Report, Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders (1989). There are a few reports in the literature of efforts to use psychotherapeutic and counseling techniques to treat persons troubled by their homosexuality who desire to become heterosexual; however, results have not been conclusive, nor have they been replicated. There is no evidence that any treatment can change a homosexual person's deep seated sexual feelings for others of the same sex. Clinical experience suggests that any person who seeks conversion therapy may be doing so because of social bias that has resulted in internalized homophobia, and that gay men and lesbians who have accepted their sexual orientation positively are better adjusted than those who have not done so.

    Statement by the American Psychological Association http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/answers.html

    "APAs Council of Representatives, at APAs Annual Convention in Chicago, passed a resolution on appropriate therapeutic responses to sexual orientation. An overwhelming majority of council members, in a show of hands, voted in favor of the resolution. The action does not explicitly condemn or discourage reparative or conversion therapy a treatment designed to change sexual orientation but opposes the portrayal of gays, lesbians and bisexuals as mentally ill and needing treatment for their sexual orientation. ... But extensive clinical observations indicate that such therapy feeds upon societys prejudice toward gays, and may exacerbate a clients little or no potential for achieving changes in orientation."

    And further, responding to the question on whether or not therapy can change sexual orientation: http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/orient.html

    "No. Even though homosexual orientation is not a mental illness and there is no scientific reason to attempt conversion of lesbians or gays to heterosexual orientation, some individuals may seek to change their own sexual orientation or that of another individual (for example, parents seeking therapy for their child). Some therapists who undertake this kind of therapy report that they have changed their client's sexual orientation (from homosexual to heterosexual) in treatment. Close scrutiny of their reports indicates several factors that cast doubt: many of the claims come from organizations with an ideological perspective on sexual orientation, rather than from mental health researchers; the treatments and their outcomes are poorly documented; and the length of time that clients are followed up after the treatment is too short.
    In 1990, the American Psychological Association stated that scientific evidence does not show that conversion therapy works and that it can do more harm than good. Changing one's sexual orientation is not simply a matter of changing one's sexual behavior. It would require altering one's emotional, romantic and sexual feelings and restructuring one's self-concept and social identity. Although some mental health providers do attempt sexual orientation conversion, others question the ethics of trying to alter through therapy a trait that is not a disorder and that is extremely important to an individual's identity. "

    American Medical Association (1996); "Health care needs of gay men and lesbians in the US: ...a condensed and edited version of the 1994 Interim House of Delegates Meeting Report 8 of the Council on Scientific Affairs. The recommendations were adopted..."; JAMA 275(17):1354-1959.

    "Aversion therapy...is not recommended for gay men and lesbians. Gay men and lesbians can become comfortable with their sexual orientation and understand the societal responses to it."problems with poor self-esteem, shame and guilt, she said. ... Critics of the technique say it revives the idea that homosexuality is a pathology that can be cureda notion that the mental health professions officially abandoned in 1973 when the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... The conversion therapy debate dates back many years, but reached a peak in 1995 when APA Council members called for the association to officially discourage the treatment as unethical. But some psychologists had argued such an action would constitute restraint of trade and would unduly interfere with the relationship between client and therapist. The therapeutic approach also ignores the fact that many people want to discard their homosexuality mainly because of societal pressures, the critics say.

    Statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.aap.org/policy/05072.html

    "Therapy directed specifically at changing sexual orientation is contraindicated, since it can provoke guilt and anxiety while having little or no potential for achieving changes in orientation."


    Incomplete Science Bibliography: Combined Biology and Social Science

    Contains both pro and con papers

    Allen, Mike (1996). Comparing the impact of homosexual and heterosexual parents on children. Journal of Homosexuality 32:19-35.
    Archer, J (1996). "Attitudes toward Homosexuals: An Alternative Darwinian View " Ethology and Sociobiology 17: 275-280.
    Bernstein, G (1996). "Behavior therapy with lesbians and gay individuals." Progress in Behavior Therapy 30:123-136.
    Bernstein, Gail (1996). Behavior therapy with lesbian and gay individuals. Progress in Behavior Modification 30:123-36.
    Billy, John (1993). The sexual behavior of men in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives 25:52-60.
    Blanchard, Ray (1997). H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men. Journal of Theoretical Biology 185:373-78.
    Byne, William (1997). Why we cannot conclude that sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon. Journal of Homosexuality 34:73-80.
    Cabaj, R (1996). Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, pg. 525-537 (T Stein).
    Cameron, Paul (1986). Child molestation and homosexuality. Psychological Reports 58:327-37.
    Cameron, Paul (1995). Does incest cause homosexuality. Psychological Reports 76:611-21.
    Cameron, Paul (1996). Do homosexual teachers pose a risk to pupils? Journal of Psychology 130:603-13.
    Cameron, Paul (1996). Errors by the APA, the APsA, and the NEA in representing homosexuality in amicus briefs about Amendment 2 to the US Supreme Court. Psychological Reports 79:383-404.
    Cameron, Paul (1997). Did the APA misrepresent the scientific literature to courts in support of homosexual custody? Journal of Psychology 131:313-32.
    Coleman, E (1978). "Toward a new model of treatment of homosexuality." Journal of Homosexuality 3(4):345-359.
    Conrad, S (1976). "Orgasmic reconditioning: a controlled study of its effects upon the sexual arousal and behavior of male homosexuals." Behavior Therapy 7: 155-166.
    Cornett, Carlton (1993). Affirmative Dynamic Psychotherapy with Gay Men. Northvale: Jason Aronson, Inc.
    Cox, Stephen (1996). Gay and lesbian identity develoment. Journal of Homosexuality 30:1-30.
    Crepault, Claude (1995). The sexoanalytic treatment of ego-dystonic homosexuality. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 21:116-126.
    Curran, D (1957). "Homosexuality: an analysis of 100 male cases seen in private practice." British Medical Journal 1: 797-801.
    Daugelli, Anthony. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities Over the Lifespan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Doll, Linda (1992). "Self-reported childhood and adolescent sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men." Child Abuse and Neglect 16:855-864.
    Eyesenck, HJ. Behavior Therapy and the Neuroses. Pergamon Press: New York, 1960. See primarily K Freund, Some problems in the treatment of homosexuality.
    Friedman, Richard (1996). An empirical study of the beliefs of psychoanalysts about scientific and clinical dimensions in male homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality 32:79-89.
    Galanter, Marc (1991). Christian psychiatry : the impact of evangelical beleif on clinical practice. American Journal of Psychiatry 148:90-95.
    Gallup, G (1995). "Have attitudes toward homosexuals been shaped by natural selection?" Ethology and Sociobiology 16: 53-70.
    Golwyn, Daniel (1993). Adventitious change in homosexual behavior during treatment of social phobia with phenelzine. Comments. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 54:37-40.
    Gonsiorek, J (1981). "Review of Homosexuality in Perspective." Journal of Homosexuality 6(3): 81-88.
    Gonsiorek, J (1991). Homosexuality: Research Implications for Public Policy. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, see ch. 7 and 10.
    Green, R (1987). The Sissy-Boy Syndrome and the Development of Homosexuality. New Haven: Yale University.
    Green, Richard. The immutability of (homo)sexual orientation. Journal of Psychiatry and Law (1988) 16:537-575.
    Haldeman, D (1994). "The practice and ethics of sexual orientation conversion therapy." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62(2): 221-227.
    Hamer, D (1993). "A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation." Science 261: 321-27.
    Haslam, Nick (1997). Evidence that male sexual orientation is a matter of degree. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73:862-70.
    Herron, William (1996). The complexity of sexuality. Psychological Reports 78:129-30.
    Hetrick, E (1984). Innovations in Psychotherapy with Homosexuals Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, (Martin: The emperor's new clothes: modern attempts to change sexual orientation; p. 23-57).
    Hu, Stella (1995). Linkage between sexual orientation and chromosome Xq28 in males but not in females. Nature Genetics 11:248-56.
    Johnson, Ray (1997). APA, science and the defense of marriage act. Psychological Reports 8:1007-16.
    Jones, Hendree (1997). "Prenatal stress alters the size of the rostral anterior commissure in rats." Brain Research Bulletin 42: 341-46.
    Jordan, Karen (1995). Clinical interventions by psychologists with lesbians and gay men. Journal of Clinical Psychology 51:448-456.
    Knisley, Edward. Psychosocial Factors Relevant to Homosexual Men who were Sexually Abused as Children and Homosexual Men who were not Sexually Abused as Children (PhD Dissertation, San Diego). United States International University. Dissertation Abstracts #AAG9227923.
    Lawson, R (1987). "Scandal in the Adventist-funded program to heal homosexuals: Failure, sexual exploitation, official silence, and attempts to rehabilitate the exploiter and his methods." Paper given at the American Sociological Association, Chicago.
    Lenderking, William (1997). "Childhood sexual abuse among homosexual men." Journal of General Internal Medicine 12: 250-253.
    LeVay, Simon (1991). "A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men." Science 253: 1034-37.
    McConaghy, N (1976). "Is a homosexual orientation irreversible?" British Journal of Psychiatry 129:556-563.
    Meyer, B (1991). "Can homosexuality in adolescents be "treated" by sex hormones?" Journal-of-Child-and-Adolescent-Psychopharmacology 1:231-235.
    Muir, JG (1996). Sexual orientation--born or bred. Journal of Psychology and Christianity 15:313-321.
    Murphy, T (1991). "The ethics of conversion therapy." Bioethics 5: 123-138.
    Murphy, T (1992). "Redirecting sexual orientation." Journal of Sex Research 29(4): 501-23.
    Murphy, T (1997). Gay Science. New York: Columbia University Press (ch 3).
    Newswatch Briefs (1990, Feb 22). Gay Chicago Magazine 8: 43.
    Pattatucci, Angela (1995). Development and familiality of sexual orientation in females. Behavior Genetics 25:407-20.
    Peplau, Letitia (1998). A critique of Bems exotic becomes erotic theory of sexual orientation. Psychological Review 105:387-394.
    Pillard, Richard (1995). A biologic perspective on sexual orientation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 18:71-84.
    Reite, Martin (1995). Cerebral laterality in homosexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior 24:585-93.
    Reiter, Laura (1989). Sexual orientation, sexual identity and the question of choice. Clinical Social Work Journal 17: 138-150.
    Roper, WG (1996). The etiology of male homosexuality. Medical Hypotheses 46:85-88.
    Rubinstein, Gidi (1995). The decision to remove homosexuality from the DSM: twenty years later. American Journal of Psychotherapy 49:416-27.
    Stein, T (1986). Contemporary Perspectives on Psychotherapy with Lesbians and Gay Men. New York: Plenum Press, p. 139-155 (R Isay).
    Stein, Terry (1997). Deconstructing sexual orientation. Journal of Homosexuality 34:81-86.
    Tripp, C (1975). The Homosexual Matrix. York: McGraw Hill.
    Tripp, CA. The Homosexual Matrix. McGraw Hill: New York, 1975.
    Turner, William (1995). Homosexuality, type 1: an Xq28 phenomenon. . Archives of Sexual Behavior 24:109-34.
    Vreeland, Carolyn (1995). The beliefs of members of the APA on the etiology of male homosexuality: a national survey. Journal of Psychology 129:507-17.
    Warneke, Lorne (1994). Phenelzine and sexuality. Comments Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 55:216-17.
    Whitehead, Neil (1996). What can sociological survveys contribute to the understanding of the causation of homosexuality? Journal of Psychology and Christianity 15:322-335.
    Wolfenden Report (1963). Report of the Committee on Homosexuality and Prostitution. New York:Stein and Day.
    Wood, Edwin (1995). Evolutions of an orientation concerning the nature of male homosexualities. American Journal of Psychoanalysis 55:103-20.
    Woodward (1958-59). "The diagnosis and treatment of homosexual offenders." British Journal of Delinquency 9: 44-59.
    Yamamoto D (1998). "From behavior to development: genes for sexual behavior define the neuronal sexual switch in Drosophila." Mechanisms of Development. 73: 135-46.
    Zhou J. (1995) "No changes in the number of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of homosexual men; comparison with vasopressin-expressing neurons. " Brain Research 672: 285-288.



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